Hildegard broadens and deepens our understanding and practice of psychology. For her, psychology is not the mere coping with ego problems but the relating of microcosm and macrocosm. She sees the human body and the human psyche as creation-in-miniature. We are in the cosmos and the cosmos is in us. "Now God has built the human form into the world structure, indeed even into the cosmos," she declares, "just as an artist would use a particular pattern in her work." If this be so, then we are interdependent with all of creation and it is from this law of interdependence that truly wise living will be learned and practiced. This law of the universe Hildegard declares in the following manner: "God has arranged all things in the world in consideration of everything else." Psychologist Carl Jung wrote that the proper psychology for twentieth century men and women is medieval. Why? Because we of the twentieth century, who have unleashed the cosmic powers of the atom but lack a cosmic moral sense and a cosmic psychic understanding, need desperately a psychology of microcosm/macrocosm. The twentieth century writer G.K. Chesterton once predicted that Thomas Aquinas may be remembered as the person who gave the twentieth century back a cosmos. While I respect Aquinas' cosmic vision, I believe it is Hildegard rather than Aquinas who will accomplish this essential task for us. For Hildegard is more steeped in women's wisdom than Aquinas. She gives us not just concepts but ways of healing psyche and cosmos. Art is the way; her mandalas as pictured in this book are ways; her drama, music, poetry, and her implicit invitation to make art our way of passing on a cosmic vision are all ways.
The value of a microcosmic/macrocosmic world view is underscored by Professor M.D. Chenu when he states that such a consciousness makes "nature and history interlock". In other words, Hildegard holds the key to healing the dangerous dualism between nature and history, creation and salvation, mysticism and prophecy, that has dominated much of Western intellectual life for centuries. This healing will not take place in an exclusively rational mode. That is one reason why Aquinas' scholasticism has failed to return a cosmos to the West. Still, the healing of the individual is also at stake in recovering a microcosm/macrocosm psychology. For if Aquinas is correct that the individual's fulfillment can only occur in "a universe that is itself unified," then the key to that healing experience of oneness must be Hildegard's kind of spiritual cosmology. This is one reason she resorts to the mandala so often to express compassion or healing.
Hildegard offers a radical opportunity for global religious ecumenism because she is so true to her own mystical roots and her own creative process. Every time I have shared Hildegard's work, Native Americans have responded that they hear in her words the words of their ancestors. Once I was sharing her illuminations and her commentary and a man came up to me and said: "Last week I buried my grandmother who is Native American. All during your presentation I heard my grandmother every time you quoted Hildegard or showed one of her images." Yet Hildegard also speaks deeply to Eastern religions as well. This is not a complete surprise for as I noted in my work on Meister Eckhart, the Celts who settled so deeply into the Rhineland area were closely linked in their spirituality to the Hindu. Readers and pray-ers of Hildegard's illuminations will see many examples of mandalas, those "maps of the cosmos," developed in the East as well as in the medieval West to "liberate the consciousness" and return us to a primeval consciousness which is fundamentally one of unity. Clearly Hildegard's illuminations played that role with herself, a role of reintegration and holistic relating, which is her intention in sharing them with others, that they too may be healed. For Hildegard, her mandalas become a primary means by which the microcosm/macrocosm, the human and the universe, are brought together again. But this is the primary reason why Hindu and Buddhist religions employ the mandala as well. As Giuseppe Tucci puts it in his classic work, The Theory and Practice of the Mandala, "the whole drama of the universe is repeated in ourselves." This is the drama Hildegard felt deeply and for her it is the primary focus of her mandalas and drawings: the drama of creation unfolding in the human "I have exalted humankind," she cites the Creator as saying with the Vocation of creation. Humankind alone is called to co-create." And she warns humanity "All nature is at the disposal of humankind. We are to work with it. Without it we cannot survive."
Careful readers of Hildegard and viewers of her Illuminations will see deep influences of the ancient goddess religions, of the Roman Aurora, the Egyptian Isis, the old Germanic Horsel, and the Hebrew hokma or female Wisdom figure as well as Aztec and Native American symbols.
It is of tremendous importance in our day to recover the wisdom of so ecumenical a figure as Hildegard of Bingen. Why? Because there can be no global peace and justice without global spirituality. And there will be no global spirituality without a new and deeper level of ecumenism occurring at that level of mysticism. The key ingredient that has up to now been sadly lacking in ecumenical exchange, except in rare instances such as the person of Thomas Merton, is mysticism. It has been missing in religious rapport because the West is so out of touch with its own deepest and most holistic mystics. It has so readily forgotten and dismissed its holistic feminist tradition - the very tradition that Hildegard summarises in her person and work - in effect launching the Rhineland mystical movement. Ecumenism need not mean dashing off to foreign shores to find spiritual nourishment at least it need no longer mean that. With giants like Hildegard and Eckhart, Francis and Aquinas, Mechtild and Dante, Julian and Nicolas of Cusa, the West can cease its mystical embarrassment vis-à-vis the East. Hildegard challenges Westerners to take another and deeper look at their own spiritual roots, especially those nearly forgotten roots of the creation-centered spiritual tradition. Jung celebrates this re-examinatlon or our own roots when he writes: "Of what use to us is the wisdom of the Upanishad or the insight of Chinese yoga, if we desert the foundations of our own culture as though they were errors outlived and, like homeless pirates, settle with thievish intent on foreign shores?" Hildegard, as universal as she is, is also thoroughly grounded in the Western spiritual tradition. To ground ourselves in that tradition is the best and most certain way to be ecumenical in the fullest sense.
The ecumenism Hildegard champions is not a religious affair to be worked out by the professionally ordained or religious ones. As we saw in the previous contributions Hildegard makes, her world is as scientific and artistic as it is religious. She helps us to broaden our understanding of ecumenism bringing together all the creativity of the human being in touch with the cosmos. Perhaps what she accomplishes is best summarised in the Eastern sacred literature, in the Upanishad . "In the space that is within the heart lies the Lord ofAll, the Ruler of the Universe, the King of the Universe ..Truly like the extent of space is the void within the heart. Heaven and earth are in it. Agni and Vayu, the sun and the moon, likewise also the stars and the lightning and all other things which exist in the universe and all that which does not exist, all exists in that void." Tucci comments on what has been described here: "In the space of the heart, magically transfigured into cosmic space, there takes place the rediscovery of our interior reality, of that immaculate principle which is out of our reach, but from which is derived - in its illusory and transcendent appearance - all that is in process of becoming." I have never shared Hildegard's illuminations, thoughts, sayings, or music with anyone whose interior space was not touched. Why is this? Because Hildegard was first and foremost a mystic who trusted her experience and images. She invites us to do the same. Her power cuts through time and space as conventionally understood.
Hildegard is not only mystic; she is also prophet and she sees herself and her work consciously and deliberately as prophetic. She disturbs the complacent, deliberately provoking the privileged, be they emperors or popes, abbots or archbishops, monks or princes to greater justice and deeper sensitivity to the oppressed. She often compares her kind of prophecy to the apocalyptic prophet Ezekiel, whose highly symbolic denunciations attacked the corruption of religion in his time as Hildegard did in hers. Many persons have seen in Hildegard's denunciations a prerunner of the Reformation in Germany. It is true that at least one friend of Martin Luther, the Nurnberg preacher, Andreas Osiander, did invoke Hildegard as a precursor of the Protestant Reformation.
Hildegard was not a lone prophet. She inspired dozens and dozens of Benedictine sisters monks, lay persons all around her to launch out and renew Christianity. Furthermore, she launched a political-mystical movement in the Rhineland that was in no way silenced after her death. As I have written elsewhere, she can rightly be called the "Grandmother of the Rhineland mystic movement," a movement that included Francis of Assisi, Mechtild of Magdeburg, Meister Eckhart, Julian of Norwich (indirectly), Nicolas of Cusa - all of whom brought the powers of mysticism to bear not on supporting the status quo but on energising the prophetic in society and church. For Hildegard, justice plays a dominant role in her cosmos, her psychology, her theology of work and morality. Reading Hildegard, one can understand more fully Meister Eckhart's statement that "the person who understands what I say about justice understands everything I have to say" While the themes of justice and cosmic balance and harmony permeate all of Hildegard's work, perhaps it is best summarised in the last vision, Vision Twenty Five below, where she celebrates the communion of saints as "the blessed ones, happy ones, who moved God in their time on earth and stirred God with sincere striving for just works." Justice is the primary struggle of creation - to allow injustice to reign is to invite chaos to take over (See Visions Four, Six, and Eighteen below.)
Throughout her life, however, Hildegard remained true to her prophetic vocation. She never forsook her sisters in their constant struggle for psychic, political, and spiritual survival in a male-dominated church and society. Her songs celebrating Mary and Ursula far outnumber her songs to male divinity Her letters to women are longer, more personal, more human than her instructions to men. She never lost faith with the anawim, nor they with her, as is evidenced in that last incident of her life when her defence of a revolutionary youth brought upon her the price of interdiction. She remained a sign of contradiction and of conscience in an all-male system and persevered to the end. She herself described what the prophet was and in doing so described her own life. "Who are the prophets? They are a royal people, who penetrate mystery and see with the spirit's eyes. In illuminating darkness they speak out." Hildegard spoke out. Out of the darkness and pain of her own journey, she spoke out. And she sang out, and wrote out. And travelled out. And preached out. And resisted out to the end.
She challenges us to be prophet in our way to our culture and our religions.
Hildegard is deeply ecological in her spirituality.The basic thrust of our time is the movement from an egological to an ecological consciousness. International author Laurens van der Post believes that ecological injustice reigns because we lack an ecological spirituality. "The reason we exploit, damage and savage the Earth is because we are out of balance. We have lost our sense of proportion. And we cannot be proportionate unless we honor the wilderness and the natural persons within ourselves." He also believes that the psychic price we pay for being out of touch with nature is a "staggering loss of identity and meaning... a kind of loneliness, an inadequate comprehension of what life can be." It is clear that humanity needs all the help it can get from the past, from the communion of saints, to usher us from our preoccupations with the human, from our awesome anthropocentrism, to a more cosmic and creation-centered way of existence. No one is better equipped to be our guide than Hildegard of Bingen. For no one was more in tune with the symphony of the universe than she. No period in human history in the West was more awakened to the divine in nature than Hildegard's century. The great scholar of the twelfth century, Fr. M.D. Chenu, characterises that period's nature awakening in the following ways: "The simplest but not the least significant evidence of this discovery of nature was their perception of the universe as an entity." Is this not what characterises the amazing dlscoveries of our time, that the vast, vast universe is one being, one entity? Chenu goes on: "The whole penetrates each of its parts; it is one universe; God conceived it as a unique living being.... Because it is a single whole, the harmony of this universe is striking." Is this not what the ecological consciousness is about today? About seeing the world as it is, as interdependent and interconnected? What was being discovered and celebrated in Hildegard's time and is so deeply needed in ours is what Chenu calls "the sacramental character of the universe." This is not a matter of human projection onto the universe but it is an issue of the intrinsic holiness of matter and harmony itself. "For, even before people contemplate it, the sacramental universe is filled with God."
Hildegard is rich in expressing the intrinsic holiness of being. For example, she writes: "I, the fiery life of divine wisdom, I ignite the beauty of the plains, I sparkle the waters, I burn in the sun, and
the moon, and the stars " And again, "There is no creation that does not have a radiance. Be it greenness or seed, blossom or beauty, it could not be creation without it." And again, "the word is living, being, spirit, all verdant greening, all creativity. All creation awakened, called, by the resounding melody God's invocation of the word."
Hildegard has a deep historical sense and she insists on making clear the moral responsibility of the human race. She shouts, "The earth must not be injured, the earth must not be destroyed!" She warns humanity that its sins of indifference and injustice to nature will cause hardships on humanity itself, for creation demands justice. While the evolutionary and historical sense lies even deeper in the psyche of modern persons than with Hildegard still it is good news to know that she, thanks to her prophetic grounding, does not dismiss the historical or use mysticism as a flight from time or social responsibility.
Hildegard challenges our theological methodology in particular and our entire educational methodology in general. Hildegard finds it impossible to theologise with intellect alone or one might say with left brain alone. As I indicated above, she breaks into imagery,mandala drawing, poetry, music, and drama in her very first theological work and never ceases this kind of learning and teaching the rest of her busy life. In doing education this way, by pictures and story as well as analysis, Hildegard is being true to her bonding with the anawim. Art as meditation is a political issue. For there are deep political implications in the way we choose to educate and Hildegard is speaking to the ordinary, often uneducated, people by the very means she chooses to teach with. Iconography was a popular art in the early part of the Christian era, before Christianity and empire were so conveniently married. Hildegard returns to this tradition. Pictures and stories precede words as the manner in which individuals learn. Humanity "drew pictures long before [it] could write books, or carve inscriptions." Hildegard is demonstrating to us how to make ecumenism happen - we must break out of our exclusively left-brain theologies and educational modes to make hearts and imaginations and heads dance with shared insight and illuminations. These are the ways that children first learn. One might call her methodology, a "folk education" - it excludes no one, not the old, the young, the uneducated, the peasant, not even the educated - unless the latter become all dried up after too many years of one-sided education.
In being true to art as a means of education, Hildegard is telling us something of women's wisdom. Education must include process as well as concept. Putting the two together is what moves people and educes from them (the true meaning of the word "education") what is their rich contribution to culture. By her holistic education practice, Hildegard invites the reader into a process. Even after 800 years, the process of her illuminations begs us to enter into our own awakening, our own illumination. Hildegard sees our lives as a journey and an adventure (see Vision Nine below) - it is theology's task to articulate and to challenge the journey - not to stifle it or smother it with epistemological exercises or speculative abstractions.
I truly believe that her theological methodology renders obsolete ninety-nine percent of all that we are calling theological learning in the twentieth century. Why? Because experience and art and cosmos are at the core of her spirituality and not an ugly, sin-oriented, anthropocentrism. Though the science of her day was greatly limited, she made the most of it. Who could imagine the renaissance that could occur in our time if education once again became as rounded, balanced, holistic, and imaginative as it was for Hildegard?
Hildegard awakens us to symbolic consciousness. An awakening to symbolism is an awakening to deeper connection-making, to deeper ecumenism, to deeper healing, to deeper art, to deeper mysticism, to deeper social justice. . Mircea Eliade would consider this a major contribution on Hildegard's part, for according to him, it is symbolic awakening that will put Western culture in touch with non-European peoples once again. It is the proper road to ecumenism and to spirituality itself. "The symbol, the myth and the image are of the very substance of the spiritual life... they may become disguised, mutilated or degraded, but never are extirpated." What is gained by the reader who allows himself or herself to be led into Hildegard's rich world of symbolism? Eliade believes that the person "who understands a symbol not only 'opens himself' to the objective world, but at the same time succeeds in emerging from his personal situation and reaching a comprehension of the universal." Paradox and personal experience, systematic imagination and diverse levels of meaning, cosmos and world patterns, are all expressed by symbol. Entering into Hildegard's symbolism awakens the rich symbolic treasury of Christian history. Her century was peculiarly "saturated" with a symbolic consciousness, as Professor Chenu points out. "At stake is the discernment of the profound truth that lies hidden within the dense substance of things and is revealed by these means." We cannot understand Hildegard without understanding this "symbolist mentality'' of her times. "The same people read the Grail story and the homilies of St. Bernard, carved the capitals of Chartres and composed the bestiaries, allegorised Ovid and scrutinised the typological senses of the Bible, or enriched their Christological analyses of the sacraments with naturalistic symbols of water, light, eating, marriage." What was at stake in all symbolising was "the mysterious kinship between the physical world and the realm of the sacred .'' And Chenu asks this probing question: "How can one write the history of Christian doctrines, let alone that of theological science, without taking into consideration this recourse to symbols." Hildegard'sinvitation to a symbolic awakening is part of her prophetic contribution to our education, our theology, our living. She lives outin her life the solid criteria of the deep, sensual, prophetic spiritual journey that I have outlined elsewhere as: trusting one's experience of breakthrough, intuition, ecstasy, and union; deepening one's symbolic consciousness; and responding to one's prophetic call to critique the powers-that-be in one's culture.
She awakens Christianity to some of the wisdom of the ancient women's religions and thereby offers healing to the male/female split in religion. She awakens the psyche to the cosmos and thereby offers healing to both. She awakens to the holiness of the earth and thereby heals the awful split between matter and spirit in the West. She awakens art to science and science to music and religion to science. And thereby heals the dangerous rift between science and religion that has dominated culture the past 300 years in the West. She heals the isolation of the artist from the deepest intellectual and spiritual currents of the past. She illumines. "In illuminating darkness, she speaks out." She illumines us today more than she illumined or dreamed of illuminating anyone in her own time. She gifts us with her illuminations.
Has there ever been a time in human history or the history of the planet when illumination, light, wisdom, was needed more than now?
Institute in Culture and Creation Spirituality
Holy Names College, Oakland, CA
Book:Illuminations of Hildegard of Bingen
Author:Hildegard of Bingen.
Commentary from Matthew Fox, O.P.
Publisher: Bear & Company, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA